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Chalicotheres (from Greek chalix, "gravel" + therion, "beast") is an extinct group of herbivorous, odd-toed ungulate (or perissodactyl) mammals spread throughout North America, Eurasia, and Africa from the Middle Eocene until the Early Pleistocene subepochs living from 46.2 mya—781,000 years ago, existing approximately 45.519 million years.

They evolved around 46 million years ago from small, forest animals similar to the early horses. Many chalicotheres, including such animals as Moropus and Chalicotherium, reached the size of a horse. By the late Oligocene, they had divided into two groups: one that grazed in open areas and another that was more adapted to woodlands. They died out around 781,000 years ago, with Nestoritherium being the most recently dated chalicothere. Chalicotheres are related to the extinct brontotheres, as well as to modern day horses, rhinoceroses, and tapirs.

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